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Iris Diseases


Scorch:

A disease that slowly kills Iris plants. They slowly turn brown over a time period, with the rhizomes remaining hard. A prevention from death can involve cutting the rhizome into sections. Thus an infected clump will usually have one part survive.  It is necessary to dig up the clump to examine it closely.

The Iris borer can also eat out a clump and the leaves will also turn brown from the tips down. This can be quite fast as the borer is in the rhizome before this effect is noticed and it proceeds quickly. If you dig up the plant you find a chewed out area (usually quite large) and sometimes the borer is still present. Soft Rot can also cause similar problems. In this case when you dig up the plant you will find a mushy plant, or what remains of the rhizome.

A recent suggestion for cure of scorch involves heating the plant to 104 degrees F. for a few days. This seems to kill the scorch, leaving the plant unharmed. This can be done with a covering over the plant, but care must be taken that the temperature doesn't get too hot and cook the plant.


Borer:


An insect that can be very damaging to the Iris. Not found in western Canada or the U.S.A.  In mid and eastern sections of Canada and the U.S.A. it can be very devastating.

The moth lays it's eggs late fall and they overwinter on the leaves. They hatch in early spring, around the time the daffodils come into bloom. They are initially near the top of the leaves, usually where the leaves separate from each other. They gradually chew their way down the plant and three weeks after the TB's stop blooming, they are in the rhizomes. About the end of August (here in southern Ontario) they have left the plant and are in metamorphosis.

Sprays are no longer available to home gardeners in Ontario, and most of Canada. for Americans, Bayer have a number of formulations containing "Imidacloprid" as an active ingrediant. Available at most hardware and gardening centres. The lawn and grub granuals will work, but awkward and expensive. Get the "Tree & Shrub" liquid and mix it as per the weaker "insect " spray. Spray early in season for best effect.

The organic method is to hunt and squeeze. Chew marks are often seen at the place where the leaves separate from each other. By opening the folds you can often trace the chewing damage until you find the borer. They can be removed and disposed of. This can also involve squeezing the borer between the leaves.


Leaf Spot:


This is an annoying and unsightly condition involving small brown spots on the leaves. This is a fungus that, though unsightly, does little damage to the plant. A spray of Benelate (or other fungiside) early in the season can help with this, although it is often necessary to repeat several times in the season. Often the easiest way to deal with it is to just remove the unsightly leaves and dispose of them (but not by putting them in the compost). An increase of nitrogen in the fertilizer can often be helpful, but too much nitrogen can make the plant more susceptible to soft rot.

This is seen more often in older clump where there are a number of factors at work. With the crowding, there is less air circulation between leaves. There is less nutrients available to each fan. Heavy rains can wash out nitrogen. With the plant being less healthy, the plant is more susceptable to diseases.

The fungus spores are in the soil. They are more prevelant if infected leaves are left over winter. So a clean up of infected leaves in fall can help reduce amount of fungus spores present.If there are major problems, a mulch around base of plant can help. DON'T place mulch at base of plant , leave it at least 3" awaw from rhizome.

In following pictures, various pictures of infected plants. This includes a badly infected plant, a dead leaf, and close up of an infected spot.

Iris Leaf spotIIris leaf spot

Iris Leaf SpotIris Leaf Spot

Iris Leaf SpotIris Leaf Spot

Iris Leaf SpotIris Leaf Spot

This fungus has been called by several names. "Mycosphaerella macrospora" seems to be current name, but it has also been called "Didymellina macrospora", "Cladosporium iridis", " Heterosporium gracile", and "Heterosporium iridis"

This fungus, by whatever name you use, can also be hosted on Hemerocallis (daylies). This year (2012) there has been reported a problem with dayliles reffered to as "Midwest Malaise". it very well could be same fungus, burt shows slightly differernt as it is on a diferernt species. I suspect that it is worse this year because of weather conditions. A wet sprin with lots of rain can leach out nitrogen in soil, placing plant under stress. Then infection takes advantage of the weakened plant. The fungus doesn't need to transfer directly from iris. It can have been present on the daylilies for a number of years, but only causing mnor problems, that have not been paticularly noticed. So fungus is present, waiting to take advantage of conditions, such as wet spring, followed by hot weather.

Remove and dispose of infected foliage. DON'T compost. Have mulch around base of plant to prevent splashing of fungus spores onto leaves. Giving plant some nitrogen will help streanth plant. You could try a foliage fertilizer. But remove infected leaves first. Avoid overhead watering if you can. If you do have to water via overhead, be sure to remove all infected foliage first.

Here are some pictures of ifected daylily plants. Shoing an infected plant, and close up of leaves and low level microscope pictures. the small black flecks seen in last photos are fungus spores. compare photos to photos of iris with "Iris leave spot"

Midwest Malaise Daylily fungus infection "Midwest Malaise"

Daylily fungus infection "Midwest Malaise"Daylily fungus infection "Midwest Malaise"

Daylily fungus infection "Midwest Malaise"Daylily fungus infection "Midwest Malaise"

Soft Rot:

This is most often see in the spring. An inspection at that time would be advisable. Any rot should be removed. I use an old tablespoon that has its edge sharpened. Then I spray the cleaned part with a mix of half javex and water. Other possible sterilizer/cauterizer are Lysol, powdered sulphur, or disinfentant liquid soap.

The method of dealing with this in warmer climates involves digging out the plant, cutting out all the rot, and leaving the rhizome to dry in the sun. For us in Canada, particularly southern Ontario, the springs are cold and cloudy so this method doesn't work (no hot sun to dry out the rhizomes). This can work later in the season when the weather is warmer and there is more sun.


2012